Separate Myth from Reality at Goldman


16th March 2012

In April 2006, the cover of The Economist featured the image of a mountain climber and the words: “On Top of the World: Goldman Sachs and the Culture of Risk.” If today these words seem drawn from another century, to anyone working at the bank in those days – as I was – it was difficult to imagine being anywhere else. Not only had it distinguished itself with a unique spirit of public service, its global investment banking relationships were now matched with a risk-management culture second to none.

Six years later, no part of this edifice seemingly stands – not, that is, if you measure it by Goldman’s public reputation. A highly personal disavowal of the firm this past week by a former member of its equity derivatives sales team, complete with descriptions of a “toxic” culture defined by a drive to exploit, rather than serve, clients has to its many detractors in the media and politics provided conclusive proof of the unique venality of Goldman Sachs.

Of the many charges levelled at the bank since it navigated the financial crisis with far greater skill and discipline than its rivals (and at a far lower cost to taxpayers), the notion that it has betrayed its traditional client-driven culture in a mad rush for profits has, to its own people, been the most damaging. This is not because the challenge of staying focused on the long-term hasn’t been difficult in an increasingly trading-dominated institution. Nor is it because the staff of the bank is oblivious to the ways in which it too was guilty of excesses in the pre-crisis financial environment. What many are perplexed by is a portrait of a fairytale financial services industry with a single predatory actor ruthlessly exploiting an innocent world of global commerce.

Even as the bank must confront the reality of practices it cannot and must not defend, the question few seem to ask is this: how have Goldman’s clients reacted to the supposed betrayal of the sacred trust by the firm’s professionals? In one measure, the ranking of global M&A advisers in 2011, Goldman comes out at number one. This suggests one of two things: either that the largest, most sophisticated corporate entities in the world have somehow missed the fact that Goldman’s bankers are picking their pockets and just keep coming back for more. Or, and perhaps more likely, it suggests they know they live in an intensively competitive world where good advice is rare and expensive; that their experience with Goldman’s competitors suggests no less a risk of the adviser being conflicted and a far greater likelihood of inferior advice; and that if they were to judge their own industry by the same standard of media scrutiny and political exploitation, they’d long ago have gone into social work.

I made the reverse journey, beginning in journalism at The New Republic and then serving at the UN for seven years before joining Goldman’s investment banking division after business school. Five years in M&A with the bank in New York and London have of course not left me impartial about Goldman and its people. While I was fortunate to work with extraordinary journalists and diplomats in my early career, my colleagues were among the smartest, most hard-working, and committed professionals I’ve come across. And when, in my experience at least, we served alongside other advisers over mergers or IPOs, our standards of diligence were without exception the highest. (And yes, my colleagues were driven in significant measure by financial motivations. That’s why they chose to work at a bank.)

That is the Goldman I know – and the one that still can be salvaged from the shift in the bank’s balance to a focus on quarterly earnings and the reputational damage it has suffered as a consequence. The second of Goldman’s business principles states: “Our assets are our people, capital and reputation. If any of these is ever diminished, the last is the most difficult to restore.” Beating the competition has always been the easy part at Goldman. Far harder, though more necessary than ever, is the process of constant reinvention that has characterised the bank’s record of outperformance year in, year out.

No institution is perfect. None is free of abuses, excesses or failures. But the vast majority of the people of Goldman have nothing to be ashamed of. For outsiders in politics and the media, it is high time for a little perspective when it comes to the character of Goldman – and perhaps even to look in the mirror next time they choose to point the finger. For the bank’s leadership, however, it is time to apply the same standard of unsentimental rigour to the question of its future that its bankers and traders provide every day to its unparalleled client base.

An environment characterised by low growth, constrained balance sheets, regulatory caution and intense public scrutiny may well require a different skillset than the boom years that brought the current leadership team to power. There is nothing immortal about Goldman’s reputation. It is perishable and it is renewable in equal measure. If the bank can build a new compact with the next generation of its bankers and traders based on a redefined role in the global market place, it will succeed yet again, and no doubt yet again drive outsiders to new levels of resentment and conspiracy-making.

The global economy is shifting in unpredictable ways. A long process of deleveraging in the developed economies poses severe policy challenges. These are the difficult questions that matter.

Nearly four years after the collapse of Lehman Brothers, we can continue to obsess over every misdemeanour or instance of excessive compensation at the banks. Or we can focus on creating new growth models in the west that rely on factors other than debt and consumption, and structuring our economies for sustainable, inclusive growth. We cannot do both.


Strategic advantage in a volatile world

The Firm

Nader Mousavizadeh and David Claydon founded Macro Advisory Partners in 2013 to provide a global client base with a competitive advantage in a complex world. Driven by a belief in the value of independent, long-term strategic counsel, MAP's co-founders created a firm that delivers actionable macro strategies to decision-makers in business, finance and government.

A volatile and fragmenting global landscape requires an integrated understanding of the political and economic drivers of change. Drawing on MAP's unique network, the firm’s partners — including Andrew Feldman and John Sawers — create tailored and innovative macro solutions mapped to the specific exposures, risks and opportunities facing the firm’s clients.

MAP's London and New York-based team of partners, directors and associates is supported by a Global Advisory Board and a group of Senior Advisors drawn from leadership positions in the worlds of business, finance, politics, diplomacy and technology.

Global Advisory Board
  • Louise Arbour

    Jurist in Residence, Borden Ladner Gervais LLP
    Louise Arbour is a jurist in residence at Borden Ladner Gervais LLP, and former UN Special Representative for International Migration.
  • William Burns

    President, Carnegie Endowment
    Ambassador Burns is President of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, and was the 17th United States Deputy Secretary of State.
  • Mala Gaonkar

    Co-portfolio Manager, Lone Pine Capital
    Mala Gaonkar is Co-portfolio Manager at Lone Pine Capital, and a former consultant at the World Bank.
  • Vikram Mehta

    Executive Chairman, Brookings India
    Vikram Mehta is a leading Indian businessman who was Chairman of the Shell Group of Companies in India.
  • David Miliband

    President, IRC
    David Miliband is President and CEO of the International Rescue Committee, following a distinguished political career in the United Kingdom.
  • Vali Nasr

    Dean, SAIS
    Dr Vali Nasr is Dean of the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies of Johns Hopkins University.
  • Jonathan Powell

    Director, Inter Mediate
    Jonathan is Director of Inter Mediate.
  • Carl-Henric Svanberg

    Chairman, BP
    Carl-Henric Svanberg is Chairman of BP Plc.


Macro Advisory Partners provides corporate, investor and sovereign clients with the strategic insights to navigate the intersection of global markets, geopolitics and policy.

In a world defined by volatility and uncertainty — and an abundance of information, yet scarcity of insight — we identify the strategic implications for decision-makers tasked with maximising opportunity and minimising risk. The Archipelago World is characterised by fragmenting markets, populist politics, policy unpredictability, revolutionary technology, and weaponised arenas of finance, regulation and cyber.  The implications of this environment are dramatic and lasting. To help our clients anticipate and navigate these shifts in the macro landscape, we bring together deep on-the-ground analysis with long-term strategic judgement tailored to our clients' specific interests, exposures and concerns.

For today's global investor and business leader, macro is just as disruptive a factor as technology. Our advice — delivered by the firm's partners through trusted, personal, long-term and dynamic client engagements — is drawn from the policy expertise and connectivity of our global network, supported by advanced data analytics. The firm's Global Advisory Board and a team of Senior Advisors with backgrounds in diplomacy, macro intelligence, investment strategy, academia and industry, support our partners with the judgements that enable us to provide clients with relevant, actionable and investable macro solutions.


A culture of partnership defines our firm — among the individuals we have attracted to our endeavour, and with the clients whose long-term interests we view as our own. Our team brings to our work a diverse range of global business, finance and government experiences that enable us not only to interpret a changing macro environment for our clients, but also to design specific solutions that enhance their performance and prospects.

The principles of independence, integrity and intelligence define our culture. Our clients include the world's leading technology, consumer, energy and financial services institutions. Our commitment to them — and to our people — is to deliver on our founding aim of building the world's leading macro advisory firm.


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